“One Health Approach” Towards Effective Health Services Delivery in Sixty Years of Independent Tanzania

Main Article Content

Mikidadi M. Muhanga
Edwin E. Ngowi


The year 2021 marked sixty years of Tanzania’s independence. Tanzania passed through different phases of development and attempted innumerable interventions, including a series of "development alternatives" to fight poverty, hunger, and infectious diseases. These efforts towards effective health services provision treated humans, animals, and environmental health separately. Due to the increase in human, livestock, wildlife, and environment interactions, the efforts did not result in the anticipated health outcomes. This prompted the government to search for an alternative approach. Cognizant of this, the government introduced the "One Health Approach (OHA)", which recognizes health as one, without a dividing line between humans, animals, and environmental health. This paper, therefore, analyzes (i) the debates for advancing effective health services delivery sixty years after independence; (ii) an emerging approach for interdisciplinary collaboration for human, animal, and environmental health, which is considered to have the potential for effective delivery of health services; and, (iii) the relevance of the OHA towards minimizing the undesirable impacts of human, livestock, and wildlife interactions on health. A documentary analysis (documentary research method) was employed to gather the information for the study. OHA is at its infancy stage, though this initiative signifies an essential landmark towards dealing with health-related challenges reflected at the convergence of humans, animals, and the environment. The milestone is outstanding as it leads to building fundamental capacities concerning public health, particularly regarding preparedness and response as per International Health Regulations. The OHA underscores the need for collaborative working efforts involving human, livestock, wildlife, and environmental health professionals for optimal human, animal, and environmental health attainment. There is a need to upscale the OHA and further understand the consequences of the interactions for optimum human, animal, and environmental health. Therefore, it conveys the idea that it is necessary to expand and enhance the OHA and the importance of comprehending the implications of the interactions for the well-being of humans, animals, and the environment.

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Mikidadi M. Muhanga, & Edwin E. Ngowi. (2023). “One Health Approach” Towards Effective Health Services Delivery in Sixty Years of Independent Tanzania. PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), 4(2), 230-254. https://doi.org/10.46404/panjogov.v4i2.4855
Research-based/ Original Articles
Author Biographies

Mikidadi M. Muhanga, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

Dr Muhanga is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Development and Strategic Studies, Sokoine University of Agriculture in Morogoro, Tanzania. His research interests include Health resources governance and management, One Health Approach and Health Literacy, and Political Demography. Currently researching: "Health Literacy and Health Behaviors in the Context of One Health Approach in Tanzania."

Edwin E. Ngowi, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro-Tanzania

Dr. Edwin Ngowi is a Senior Lecturer in rural development, particularly focusing on areas revolving around ICTs and rural livelihoods nexus, rural development in general at Sokoine University of Agriculture, where he is currently teaching Development Studies related subjects.


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