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Humanitarian aid aims to mitigate the suffering of people, alleviate poverty, and lay a firm foundation for sustainable peace and development. This research paper aims to assess the impact of humanitarian aid in two counties of Central Equatoria State of South Sudan. The provision of humanitarian aid is one of the pillars in the process of peace-building. Understanding the provision of humanitarian aid helps assess the impact of humanitarian activities on post-conflict communities. It contributes to understanding the practical process of peace-building to prevent a resumption of conflict in post-conflict communities. The outbreak of intra-conflict in December 2013 in Juba shows that the process of peace-building was not effective. A qualitative method was applied for data collection and analysis. Primary data was gathered through in-depth interviews of key informants, including selected community leaders, civil society organizations, national and international non-governmental organizations, staff of UN agencies, and key national and state officials. Stratified purposive interviews were conducted in Juba and Kajokeji Counties. Two focus group discussions were held in Juba and the other in Kajokeji. Secondary data from various academic and policy institutions were used to supplement the primary data. The data were analyzed using methods of ethnography and discourse interpretation, observation, and interaction. Coordinating the processes of recovery and development requires humanitarian principles. Development partners, host communities, policymakers, and others underestimated the challenges in delivering humanitarian aid. The democratic system that the national government of South Sudan advocated was not based on principles of good governance and on the engagement of civil society organizations, which are the custodian of the social contract between the citizen and the national government. The process for the provision of humanitarian aid did not relieve much suffering in communities. It contributed less effective effort to the process of peace-building to prevent the reoccurrence of conflict in Central Equatoria and the other states of South Sudan. The process would require the practice of good governance.
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