The main objective of this study is to examine determinants of women leadership participation: The case of selected public sectors in Jimma town. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data were obtained through self-administered questionnaire distributed to female who held leadership positions at lower middle and top level in public sectors of Jimma town. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the response obtained with regard to socio-cultural factors, attitude of females towards themselves, women home responsibility and institutional factors. Inferential statics such as the correlation and regression were used to see the relationship between women leadership participation and the factors that affect it. The finding indicated that personal and social factors are the basic determining factors that affect female leadership participation. It is recommended that women have to develop positive self-image and the society as a whole has to change the attitude toward women.