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BACKGROUND: The burden of chronic non-communicable diseases is on the rise in middle and low income countries on top of the existing infectious diseases. Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases.
METHODS: The cross sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to January 2009 at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center of Jimma University. Data were collected using WHO steps instruments translated into the local languages. Individuals for the study were selected by stratified random sampling for interviewing, physical examination and biochemical tests from the study base. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 16.0 and STATA 11.
RESULTS: The distribution of the various categories of risk factors is identified. Among the behavioral risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is 9.3%, alcohol consumption 7.3%, consumption of fruits and vegetables below adequate level 27.0%, low level physical activity (16.9%) and khat chewing (38.6%). The prevalence of physical risk factors is 9.3% for hypertension, 2.6% for overweight and 33.3% central obesity. The prevalence of metabolic disorders is 10.7% for high total cholesterol and 7.7% for raised triglyceride. Overall, 80.0% of the population had at least one of the risk factors.
CONCLUSION: The magnitude of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases is considerably high in the study population. Appropriate preventive measure and should be designed to prevent and control these risk factors.