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BACKGROUND: Pemphigus is a potentially life threatening autoimmune disease that causes blistersand erosions of the skin and the mucous membrane. The epithelial lesions are a result of auto-antibodies that react with desmosomal glycoproteins that are present on the cell surface of thekeratinocyte. The autoimmune reaction against these glycoproteins causes a loss of cell to cell adhesion,resulting in the formation of intraepithelial bullae. Eighty to ninety percent of patients with pemphigusvulgaris develop oral lesions and in 60% of cases oral lesions are the first sign. Timely recognition andtherapy of oral lesion is critical as it may prevent skin involvement. If treatment is instituted during thistime, the disease is easier to control and the chance for an early remission of the disorder is enhanced.CASE DETAILS: This case report describes the case of a patient who complained of ulcers of the mouthand difficulty in swallowing since 20 days, who was diagnosed as having Pemphigus vulgaris. Due toearly diagnosis, lower doses of medication for a shorter period of time could control the disease.CONCLUSION: Dental professionals must be sufficiently familiar with the clinical manifestations ofpemphigus vulgaris to ensure early diagnosis and treatment which in turn determines the prognosis andcourse of the disease.