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BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status at national, sub-national, household, and individual levelsexplains a significant portion of variation in infant mortality. Women’s education is among the majordeterminants of infant mortality. The mechanism through which a woman’s own educational status, overher husband’s as well as household characteristics, influences infant mortality has not been well studiedin developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore the role of woman’s empowerment andhousehold wealth in the association between a woman’s educational status and infant mortality.METHODS: The association between a woman’s educational status and infant death, and the role ofwoman’s empowerment and household wealth in this relationship,were examined among married womenin Ethiopia through a secondary, serial cross-sectional analysis utilizing data on birth history of marriedwomen from three rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, andmultivariate analyses were conducted to examine the association between woman’s education and infantdeath, and the possible mediation or moderation roles of woman empowerment and household wealth.RESULTS: Female education and empowerment were inversely associated with infant death. The resultsindicated mediation by empowerment in the education-infant death association, and effect modificationby household wealth. Both empowerment and education had strongest inverse association with infantdeath among women from the richest households.CONCLUSION: The findings suggest an important role of female empowerment in the education-infantdeath relation, and the complexity of these factors according to household wealth. Womanempowerment programs may prove effective as a shorter term intervention in reducing infant mortality.