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BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality rates in Ethiopia are amongthe highest in the world. Reducing neonatal and young infantmortality highly relies on early recognition of symptoms andappropriate care-seeking behavior of parents/care givers. The mainaim of this study was to assess the knowledge of danger signs andhealth seeking behavior of parents/care givers in newborn andyoung infant illness in Southwest Ethiopia.METHODS:A community-based cross-sectional study wasconducted using cluster sampling technique to get 422 samples ofparents/care givers who had infants of less than 6 month old. Datawas collected through face-to-face interviews using structuredquestionnaire. Logistic regression was used to identify factorsaffecting care seeking behavior and knowledge of parents/caregivers on newborn and young infant illness.RESULT: Care seeking behavior for newborn and young infantillness was high (83%), the major factor associated with careseeking behavior being place of delivery. Only less than half of therespondents had adequate knowledge of symptoms of illness ofnewborns and young infants. The major factors associated withknowledge of parents/care givers were maternal education andpaternal education.CONCLUSIONS: To improve the knowledge of parents/care giversabout newborn and young infant illness, counseling about themajor symptoms of newborn and young infant illness should beintensified.